From July 1, 2016, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) will implement the relevant requirements of SOLAS Convention on the weight inspection of export containers, which clearly requires that from that day on, the shipper (cargo owner) will declare the total checked weight (VGM) for all export containers, and any container without the total verified weight will not be loaded.
1、New regulations will improve the safety of shipping
The new regulations will improve the safety of shipping. The misreported weight of containers has a serious impact on the stability of ships, trucks and terminal equipment, and can pose a threat to the safety of workers in the industry, even life-threatening. Misreporting of weight seems to be a common phenomenon. When a container is weighed after an accident, the result of the total quantity obtained is often different from the data on its cargo manifest. The long-standing dispute over this issue has led to amendments to the SOLAS Convention to ensure accurate declaration of all container weights.
2、All containers shall be weighed
The principle stipulated in the new SOLAS Convention is simple. From July 1, 2016, all containers must be weighed before shipment. The weight of the container can be determined in one of two ways. The container may be weighed after it has been loaded, or all contents of the container may be weighed instead, and the weight may be combined with the tare weight of the container. In any way, subjective estimation of its weight is not allowed.
3、The whole supply chain will be affected
Active participation in all aspects of the container supply chain will be affected to some extent by this new regulation. Vessel operators and terminal operators are required to apply proven container weights to stowage plans. In order for them to get information in a timely manner, the shipper will have to share the verified weight with the booking agent or freight forwarder. This clearly requires new agreements on procedures and modifications to existing information technology (it) systems.
4、Provide accurate weight for shipper's responsibility
The shipper (or a third party under the shipper's responsibility) is required to weigh the loaded container or its entire contents, depending on the method chosen. The weighing equipment used must meet the national certification and calibration requirements. The SOLAS Convention amendment requires that the weight verification procedure must be signed, and the specific person must name and determine the weight calculation accuracy procedure verified on behalf of the shipper. The carrier may rely on this signature to verify the weight as the exact weight.
5、The details of the declaration procedure may vary depending on the circumstances
The total verified weight of the container must be declared in the signed shipping documents. This document may be part of the shipping order given to the shipping company, or it may be a separate document, such as a declaration containing a weight certificate. In any case, the document shall clearly state that the total weight provided is the total weight verified. The carrier will provide the shipper's information cut-off time during which the carrier must receive the required container proof weight from the shipper for the ship's stowage plan. These deadlines can vary from carrier to carrier, from operating procedures to terminal operator requirements, and from port to port. No container without a certified gross weight shall be loaded on board.
This is mainly divided into port overweight, shipping company overweight and destination port overweight
1、The shipping company is overweight
Negotiate with the ship owner to pay the excess weight fee, and follow the normal way for others;
2、The port has its own overweight regulations
If it is found that it is overweight when entering the port, it is necessary to negotiate with the port, pay the overweight fee plus the manual handling fee or unload and reload;
Generally, if the destination port is overweight and within a certain range, it can be solved by paying a fine; if it is seriously overweight, the crane along the way can only be unloaded at the nearby port or returned by the original way.
1. "Sea bill of lading" refers to the goods receipt issued by the carrier or freight forwarding company to the shipper after receiving the goods. The bill of lading is not only the certificate of ownership of goods, but also the contract of carriage or the certificate of carriage.
2. The function of the bill of lading is similar to but not identical with the bill of lading. The difference between B / L and B / L is that the consignee of B / L is clear. Unless the consignee proves that he is the consignee filled in the B / L, he can take delivery of the goods without submitting the original documents. The scope of application of sea waybill is much narrower than that of sea waybill. Because of its non transferability, sea waybills are generally used for the transportation of goods between members of transnational corporations.
3. The railway waybill is a contract of carriage between the shipper, consignee and railway issued by the railway transport carrier, but it can not be used as a document of title. The railway waybill is divided into original and duplicate, the original is transported with the goods, and the duplicate is delivered to the consignor for settlement. If the goods are lost, a claim can also be made according to the railway waybill.
4. An air waybill is a cargo document issued by an air carrier or his agent. Air waybill is not only the carrier receiving the goods, but also the contract of carriage between the shipper and the carrier. The air waybill is the same as the railway waybill. It is not a document of ownership and therefore cannot be transferred.
5. The Shipping Notice refers to the notice document issued by the exporter to the customer after the goods are shipped out of the place of departure, which is used to inform the other party that the goods have been shipped. When both parties use FOB or CFR trade terms, the customer needs to insure the goods according to the shipping notice. Therefore, the exporter should send the shipping notice to the customer within two days after delivery.
6. Bill of lading is an indispensable document for the consignee to go through the formalities of customs declaration and delivery. After the arrival of the goods at the port of destination, the consignee shall exchange the bill of lading or other transport documents with the agent of the carrier.
The shipping document is not only the proof of the exporter's delivery, but also the necessary document for the importer to pick up the goods. When making the shipping documents according to the invoices, the sales personnel shall be clear, effective and legal to avoid the situation that the customers cannot receive the goods due to the inconsistency of the documents.
The filling of the declaration form must be true and conform to two requirements:
1. the documents are consistent, that is, the declaration form is consistent with the contract, approval, invoice, packing list, etc.; second, the single goods are consistent, that is, the contents reported in the declaration form are consistent with the actual import and export goods. In particular, the name, specification, quantity and price of the goods must be true.
2. Goods with different contracts cannot be filled in the same declaration form; goods with different trade modes in the same batch of goods must also be declared to the customs with different declaration forms.
3. If there are many different commodities on a customs declaration form, they should be filled in clearly, but the maximum number of commodities on a customs declaration form can not be more than five.
4.The items filled in the declaration form shall be accurate and complete. Each column in the declaration form shall be filled in detail item by item, and the content shall be correct; it is required to type and fill in as much as possible, such as writing with pen, the handwriting shall be clear and tidy, and the change items shall be stamped with proofreading seal.
5. In order to implement Customs declaration automation, the declaration unit shall fill in the code of relevant items in addition to the relevant items in the declaration form.
6. The content of import and export declaration form pre entered by computer must be completely consistent with the original declaration form. The declarative shall check carefully to prevent wrong recording. In case of any discrepancy, the declarative shall timely request the entry personnel to re-enter.
7. For the export goods declared and released by the customs, the consignor of the export goods who fails to load all or part of the goods on the originally declared means of transport shall submit the application for change of the declaration form of export goods to the Customs for reasons such as the stowage of the means of transport.
Generally speaking, LSS cost is not a local charge of the port of departure, but an integral part of the sea freight. Therefore, it is reasonable for some freight forwarders to include LSS in the sea freight and quote an all in price.
If the goods are FOB designated, the FOB terms do not include freight, and the LSS as a part of freight should be borne by the consignee.
In case of C & f or CIF terms, LSS fee shall be borne by shipper. However, for shipping companies, they basically default to ship at the port of departure to prepay the cost.
Different Forwarders may quote for LSS in different ways.
Some freight forwarders have all in price, i.e. LSS expense has been included in the ocean freight and is no longer listed as a separate expense. Some Forwarders list LSS expenses separately.
When making an inquiry, the consignor should ask whether LSS expenses are included
LSS fees charged by various shipping companies are different, and the charging standards of basic port and transfer port are also different. For the basic port, usually 15-25usd / TEU
In order to support energy conservation and emission reduction, shipping industry has issued ship emission standards. From January 1, 2015, fuel oil with sulfur content no more than 0.10% m / m shall be used. In addition, if the ship uses the exhaust gas cleaning system with the same effect as the low sulfur fuel oil, the requirements for the use of low sulfur fuel oil can be exempted. This emission limitation standard from January 1, 2015 is also applicable to the other three emission control areas (ECA) designated by IMO.
According to this emission limit, in order to reduce the sulfur content of fuel emissions, ships must use fuel with higher price and standard when entering these control areas, or install exhaust gas cleaning system, which will lead to higher costs. So the LSS of low sulfur fuel surcharges appeared.
The full English name of LSS is low sulfur fuel surcharge or low sulfur surcharge, which means "low sulfur surcharge", which is one of the numerous shipping surcharges.
Since the implementation of AMS declaration, the imported goods information of the implementing country is accurate, clean, complete and easy to track and query, which not only improves the homeland security, but also greatly reduces the risk of imported goods and improves the efficiency of customs clearance. In order to effectively avoid risks and protect the national land security and people's interests, the declaration system of pre shipment manifest has been implemented.
The undeclared AMS will result in the failure of normal cargo boarding. Goods that exceed the declaration deadline and then make up the declaration will be subject to customs fine issued by South African Customs.
A complete AMS shall include the following:
Carrier Master BL No
Vessel / Voyage
Container Details/Seal Numbers
Cargo Descriptions/ HS CODE
Size/ Type/No. & PKG Type/Weight/CBM/ Marks & Numbers
Port of Loading/Port of Discharge/Final Destination
Because AMS is also called 24-hour manifest forecast, as the name implies, it is necessary to send the manifest 24 hours in advance, that is, all goods exported to South Africa and transferred through South Africa must be sent to South African Customs 24 hours before shipment.
In practice, shipping companies usually cut off the orders ahead of time (generally 36-48 hours in advance) to ask exporters to submit AMS information, and for exporters, they will not be able to provide the correct information before the specified time limit, so there is a situation that the shipping companies are required to change AMS information after the cut-off.
Additional risks cover losses caused by external risks, which can be divided into general additional risks and special additional risks, corresponding to general external risks and special external risks respectively.
Additional insurance can not be covered separately. One or more of them can be covered on the basis of basic insurance. After covering all risks, as all risks cover the liability of all general additional risks, we only need to choose additional insurance in special additional risks.
General additional insurance
1) insurance of pilferage and non delivery
2) insurance of fresh water and rain
4) insurance of Contamination
5) insurance of Leakage
6) insurance of damage by collision
7) insurance of flavour
8) insurance of damp and heat
9) insurance of Hook Damage
10) Packing damage insurance
11)Rust damage insurance
Special additional insurance
Special additional insurance takes some government action risks that lead to cargo damage as the underwriting object. It is not included in the scope of all risks insurance. In order to obtain the insurance guarantee of the political risks such as government action from the insurer, no matter the insured invests in any basic insurance, it must be specially agreed with the insurer and specially agreed by the insurer. Otherwise, the insurer shall not be liable for the insurance.
Special additional insurance:
1) Insurance of failure to deliver risk
2) Import tariff insurance
3) Insurance of on deck
4) Rejection insurance
5) Aflatoxin insurance
6) War and strike insurance
No matter F.P.A., W.P.A. or all risks insurance, the insurer shall not be liable for the following losses and expenses according to the provisions of China's marine cargo transportation insurance clauses:
1) Loss caused by the intentional act or negligence of the insured.
2) Loss caused by consignor.
3)Loss caused by poor quality or short quantity of the insured goods before the commencement of insurance liability.
4) Loss or expense caused by natural loss, essential defect, characteristics, market price drop and transportation delay of the insured goods.
5) The scope of liability and exclusions stipulated in the war risk clause and strike risk clause of marine transportation goods.
Because the above exclusions are based on the loss caused by the subjective fault of the insured, the potential defect of the commodity itself and the inevitable consumption during the transportation, the insurer excludes these risks from the coverage
The marine transportation of tung oil in bulk insurance is a kind of marine cargo transportation insurance with tung oil in bulk as the subject matter of insurance. It covers the loss of tung oil in bulk caused by natural disasters or accidents within the scope of insurance during the sea transportation.
Marine refrigerated cargo insurance is a kind of marine cargo insurance which is specially suitable for refrigerated cargo. The marine refrigerated cargo insurance established by various insurance companies in China is based on the marine refrigerated cargo insurance clauses revised by the people's Insurance Company of China on January 1, 1981.
The specific contents include: the marine transportation of refrigerated goods insurance is divided into refrigerated insurance and refrigerated all risks insurance. Their insurance liabilities are water break and all risks in general cargo insurance plus corruption or loss caused by the cold storage machine stopping working for more than 24 consecutive hours.
This insurance covers:
Cover all losses and expenses of the above FPA
Be responsible for part of the losses of the insured goods caused by natural disasters such as severe weather, lightning, tsunami, earthquake and flood.
W.P.A. is generally applicable to goods that are not easy to be damaged or affected by rust, such as hardware materials, old automobiles, machinery, machine tools, bulk metal raw materials, etc.
In different routes, the shipping capacity is arranged according to the order of cargo loading and unloading port, the type and heat of cargo export. In addition to the load problem of equipment operation in the destination port, the weight limit of large and small containers in different routes is naturally different.
It mainly depends on the mechanical equipment load of wharf and storage yard.
After the container ship is close to the terminal, the crane of the terminal is generally required for loading and unloading, and then it is towed to the container yard by truck and lifted down by forklift. If the weight of the container exceeds the mechanical load, it will cause difficulties to the operation of the terminal and the yard. Therefore, for some small ports with relatively backward equipment, the shipping company will generally inform the port of the weight limit in advance, and will not accept those exceeding the limit.
People who have been in the interior of the United States have a deep understanding that the weight limit of road transportation in the United States is very strict, because many containers need to be towed inland by truck after being unloaded from the terminal, so the road weight limit also becomes the reason for shipping companies to limit the weight of containers, of course, it is not limited only for the terminal.
The weight of the goods on the American line is very strict. The weight limit is mainly affected by the road weight limit to the inland point of the United States, generally 17.3 tons for small containers and 19.5 tons for large and high containers. However, according to different ports, there are different weight restrictions.
Generally, the weight policy of each shipping company is different. The standard is not to damage the container.
In the balance of space and weight. Every container ship has certain space and weight restrictions, but on a particular route, the space and weight are not always just balanced. The contradiction often occurs in North China where the heavy cargo is concentrated. The weight of the ship has arrived, and the shipping space is still much less. In order to make up for the loss of this kind of shipping space, the shipping company often adopts the strategy of increasing the price, that is, after the cargo weight exceeds how many tons, additional freight will be charged. There are also shipping companies that do not use their own ships, but buy other shipping companies' shipping space for transportation. The restrictions on weight will be more stringent, because the shipping space sales between shipping companies are all calculated according to the standard of 1teu = 14tons or 16tons, and those exceeding the weight will not be put on board.
During the explosion period, the weight limit of each box will be lowered according to the heat of the route.
When booking, ask the forwarder about the shipping company's weight limit at the latest. If there is no confirmation and the cargo is heavy, there will be risks. Some shipping companies will not have any communication space after being overweight, and will directly let the shipper tow, leave the port, pick up the cargo and then weigh again. These costs are out of control.
Weight limit of container itself
Each container has the maximum weight limit information on the opening door, such as Max gross: 30480kgs. That is to say, you can't carry more than this weight. The tare weight -- 20gp: 2200kgs, 40: 3.720-4200kgs, and some HQ will have Max gross: 32000kgs.
This is the maximum strength that the container can bear. If the loading exceeds this limit, the container may be deformed, the bottom plate will fall off, the top beam will bend and other damages may occur, and all the losses arising therefrom will be borne by the loader. At present, most of the domestic professional container terminals are equipped with automatic weighbridge. Therefore, as long as the container load exceeds the box weight limit, the terminal will refuse to accept the container. Therefore, it is recommended that you see the weight limit on the container before packing, so as to avoid unnecessary reloading.
If the goods are really overweight and cannot be divided, then you can choose the overweight box. This will increase the weight selection fee. Generally, the wharf / yard will stack the common dry containers of the shipping company together. If you want to select special weight cabinets (such as the 20 weight cabinets mentioned above), the wharf and yard must search one by one, and the resulting container selection fee is generally the same as the specified container fee.
Container transportation is a collaborative process involving many departments, so in addition to the weight limit of container itself, there are some other factors to be considered.